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Iran - trattamento acque reflue da scarichi industriali

The waste processing unit is located in the Charmshar of Varamin city with the latitude and longitude GPS coordinates of 35°06'34.0"N 51°33'57.4"E.
 



In the Charmshahr, there are about 300 leather factories, which fabricate all types of leather, including ashberta, natural leather, salombo, as well as sheep, cow, goat leathers.

In general, wastewater treatment units in the waste processing section are divided into three parts: physical, physico-chemical and biological removal.

The entrance to the refinery is 13,000 m3/day. The discharge sludge from the treatment units are 500-700 m3/day. The wet sludge dried in the sludge drying bed (Figure 1) is currently stored on the land bed. There are 10 beds with the dimensions of 20 m width, 100 m length and 1.5 m height (Figure 2). Also, the dry sludge is currently stored in the vicinity of the processing plant. There are about 41250 m2 land area allocated to the storage of dry sludge.



Figure 1. The sludge drying bed
 


Figure 2. The storage of the dried sludge in the water treated in the land around the refinery


The appearance of the treated water in the waste processing unit is illustrated in the Figure 3. This treated water has released into the surrounding area. The elemental analysis of the wastewater after treatment (Figure 3) are listed in the Table 1. Other physicochemical parameters of the treated water are listed in Table 2.



Figure 3. The water treated in the Charmshahr refinery unit

.

Table 1. The wastewater characterization after the treatment


Element

Ag

Al

As

Ba

Bi

Ca

Cd

Co

Cr

Concentration (mg/l)

<0.01

1.206

<0.1

0.037

<0.01

193.67

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

Element

Cu

Fe

Ga

Hg

K

La

Li

Mg

Mn

Concentration (mg/l)

0.402

0.091

<0.01

<0.01

230.63

<0.01

0.232

89.988

<0.01

Element

Mo

Na

Ni

P

Pb

Sb

Sc

Se

Sr

Concentration (mg/l)

<0.01

244.62

<0.01

6.19

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.1

5.267

Element

Ti

Tl

V

W

Zn

Concentration (mg/l)

0.064

<0.01

<0.01

<0.1

0.08


 
  Table 2. The physicochemical parameters of the wastewater after the refinery treatment
 

PH

8.5

Suspended Solids

8 mg/l

Total Dissolved Solids

13122 mg/l

BODs

90 mg/l

C.O.D

563 mg/l

Kejeldahl N

308 mg/l

EC

21085 ps

Total phosphates

1.9 mg/l

Oil & Grease

0.03 mg/l

The elemental analysis and the physicochemical parameters of the wet sludge are listed in the Table 3 and 4, respectively.
 


Table 3. The elemental analysis of the wet sludge

Element

Ag

Al

As

Ba

Bi

Ca

Cd

Co

Cr

Concentration (ppm)

<0.01

22708.8

<0.1

46.471

<0.01

52688.2

<0.01

<0.01

7116.98

Element

Cu

Fe

Ga

Hg

K

La

Li

Mg

Mn

Concentration (ppm)

50.432

2793.1

<0.01

<0.01

6062.02

6.904

7.704

6737.5

106.22

Element

Mo

Na

Ni

P

Pb

Ti

Tl

V

W

Concentration (ppm)

<0.01

9683.61

10.338

23792

51.52

332.49

<0.01

11.224

<0.01

 

Table 4. the physicochemical parameters of the wet sludge


pH

7.6

Turbidity

179.3 NTU

Suspended Solids

313 ppm

Total Dissolved Solids

11340 ppm

COD

63100 ppm

EC

22.3 mS/m

Total solids

87.7 g/l

As the environmental conditions around the waste processing plant is severely at risk, It is urgently required to implement projects that would prevent further detoriation of the surrounding environment.

The first problem is that the treated water with high electrical conductivity is released to the surrounding and it causes the dryness of the land and it reduces quality and fertility of the land considerably. Therefore, additional water treatment should be done to improve the water quality in order to reuse it in the leather factory or to use it in the irrigation system.

The second problem is related to the wet sludge. As mentioned above, so far, there is no treatment approach for sludge remediation. The wet sludge dried and then it is stored. But, as it contains toxic and hazardous substances (see Table 3) with disgusting smell, keeping it in an open area (see Figure 2) caused the pollution of the air and groundwater. It is required to utilize the sludge for the generation of the biofuels or other by products. Therefore, a cooperation with specialized companies for solving the problems of waste utilization and management associated with Chamshahr waste processing plant is sought.

 

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